Kenya has 13,600 km2 of inland lakes and 640 km of coastline.
The main species caught in inland capture fisheries are Lates niloticus (Nile perch), Rastrineobola argentea (omena), Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia), Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and Micropterus salmoides(black bass).
Lake Victoria supports the largest inland freshwater fishery on earth. The lake traverses three East African Countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania and has a surface area of 68,000km2 shared between Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The Kenyan portion of the lake covers an area of 4128 km2. This portion produces the bulk (80%) of the country’s annual fish landings. The main commercial species caught are Rastreonobola agentea (Omena/dagaa/mukene) 53.32%, Lates Niloticus (Nile Perch) 33.4% and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) 4.31%. Fish stocks have dwindled due to heavy eutrophication, proliferation of invasive species, over-fishing and use of illegal/undersize gears. The most common areas of research in the lake are environmental, capture fisheries and fish farming (aquaculture and cage culture), social economics and ecological studies.
Lake Turkana is the largest water body wholly in Kenya and the largest desert lake in the world. It’s located at the northern end of the Kenyan Great Rift Valley with the northern tip at the boundary line of Kenya and Ethiopia. The lake has a surface area of 7,500 km2. Its fishery is dominated by Lates niloticus (Nile perch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia).
The Tana River is about 950 km long and the longest river in Kenya. It originates from Mt. Kenya and the Aberdares Mountains. It enters the Indian Ocean at Kipini in Tana River County. The river’s fishery is dominated by three species; Tilapias, Clarias spp. and Protopterus spp.
The Tana delta is the largest delta in Kenya with an area of 1300km2. It’s located at Coast Province near Kipini and was gazetted as Kenya's 6th Ramsar Site. Its fishery is dominated by Clarias spp. (49.6%), Tilapiines (26.3%) and Protopterus spp. (24.1%).
River Nzoia is 257 km long and the largest river draining into Lake Victoria from Kenya. It contributes 14.8% of the total influx from rivers flowing into the lake. The river originates from the easterly slopes of Mt Elgon and enters the lake at Port Victoria in Busia County. B. altianalis dominates the catch with a contribution of 87.08%.
River Kuja originates from Nyamira County in the Kisii highlands and enters Lake Victoria near Wath Onger as River Migori-Kuja in Migori County. It’s about 143 km long. Its fishery is dominated by Barbus altianalis (40%), Barbus neumayeri (11.1%) and Labeo victorianus (10.6%).
Sondu-Miriu River originates from the western slopes of Mau Escarpments and enters Lake Victoria via Osodo Bay. It’s about 133km long.